# OptionParser

OptionParser can be used for parsing command line options from ARGV.

# Mandatory and optional command line options

It's relatively easy to parse the command line by hand if you aren't looking for anything too complex:

# Naive error checking
abort('Usage: ' + $0 + ' site id ...') unless ARGV.length >= 2

# First item (site) is mandatory
site = ARGV.shift

ARGV.each do | id |
  # Do something interesting with each of the ids
end

But when your options start to get more complicated, you probably will need to use an option parser such as, well, OptionParser:

require 'optparse'

# The actual options will be stored in this hash
options = {}

# Set up the options you are looking for
optparse = OptionParser.new do |opts|
  opts.banner = "Usage: #{$0} -s NAME id ..."

  opts.on("-s", "--site NAME", "Site name") do |s|
    options[:site] = s
  end

  opts.on( '-h', '--help', 'Display this screen' ) do
    puts opts
    exit
  end
end

# The parse! method also removes any options it finds from ARGV.
optparse.parse!

There's also a non-destructive parse, but it's a lot less useful if you plan on using the remainder of what's in ARGV.

The OptionParser class doesn't have a way to enforce mandatory arguments (such as --site in this case). However you can do you own checking after running parse!:

# Slightly more sophisticated error checking
if options[:site].nil? or ARGV.length == 0
  abort(optparse.help)
end

For a more generic mandatory option handler, see this answer. In case it isn't clear, all options are optional unless you go out of your way to make them mandatory.

# Default values

With OptionsParser, it's really easy to set up default values. Just pre-populate the hash you store the options in:

options = {
  :directory => ENV['HOME']
}

When you define the parser, it will overwrite the default if a user provide a value:

OptionParser.new do |opts|
  opts.on("-d", "--directory HOME", "Directory to use") do |d|
    options[:directory] = d
  end
end

# Long descriptions

Sometimes your description can get rather long. For instance irb -h lists on argument that reads:


 --context-mode n  Set n[0-3] to method to create Binding Object,
                    when new workspace was created

It's not immediately clear how to support this. Most solutions require adjusting to make the indentation of the second and following lines align to the first. Fortunately, the on method supports multiple description lines by adding them as separate arguments:


 opts.on("--context-mode n",
          "Set n[0-3] to method to create Binding Object,",
          "when new workspace was created") do |n|
    optons[:context_mode] = n
  end

You can add as many description lines as you like to fully explain the option.