# Dictionary key initializations
dict.get method if you are not sure if the key is present. It allows you to return a default value if key is not found. The traditional method
dict[key] would raise a
Rather than doing
def add_student(): try: students['count'] += 1 except KeyError: students['count'] = 1
def add_student(): students['count'] = students.get('count', 0) + 1
# Switching variables
To switch the value of two variables you can use tuple unpacking.
x = True y = False x, y = y, x x # False y # True
# Use truth value testing
Python will implicitly convert any object to a Boolean value for testing, so use it wherever possible.
# Good examples, using implicit truth testing if attr: # do something if not attr: # do something # Bad examples, using specific types if attr == 1: # do something if attr == True: # do something if attr != '': # do something # If you are looking to specifically check for None, use 'is' or 'is not' if attr is None: # do something
This generally produces more readable code, and is usually much safer when dealing with unexpected types.
Click here (opens new window) for a list of what will be evaluated to
# Test for "main" to avoid unexpected code execution
It is good practice to test the calling program's
__name__ variable before executing your code.
import sys def main(): # Your code starts here # Don't forget to provide a return code return 0 if __name__ == "__main__": sys.exit(main())
Using this pattern ensures that your code is only executed when you expect it to be; for example, when you run your file explicitly:
The benefit, however, comes if you decide to
import your file in another program (for example if you are writing it as part of a library). You can then
import your file, and the
__main__ trap will ensure that no code is executed unexpectedly:
# A new program file import my_program # main() is not run # But you can run main() explicitly if you really want it to run: my_program.main()