# URL Encode/Decode

# Encode Query String with [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode()

$scheme = 'https'
$url_format = '{0}://example.vertigion.com/foos?{1}'
$qs_data = @{
    'foo1'='bar1';
    'foo2'= 'complex;/?:@&=+$, bar''"';
    'complex;/?:@&=+$, foo''"'='bar2';
}

[System.Collections.ArrayList] $qs_array = @()
foreach ($qs in $qs_data.GetEnumerator()) {
    $qs_key = [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode($qs.Name)
    $qs_value = [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode($qs.Value)
    $qs_array.Add("${qs_key}=${qs_value}") | Out-Null
}

$url = $url_format -f @([uri]::"UriScheme${scheme}", ($qs_array -join '&'))

With [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode(), you will notice that spaces are turned into plus signs (+) instead of %20:

[https://example.vertigion.com/foos](https://example.vertigion.com/foos)? foo2=complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+bar%27%22& complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+foo%27%22=bar2&foo1=bar1

# Quick Start: Encoding

$url1 = [uri]::EscapeDataString("http://test.com?test=my value")
# url1: http%3A%2F%2Ftest.com%3Ftest%3Dmy%20value

$url2 = [uri]::EscapeUriString("http://test.com?test=my value")
# url2: http://test.com?test=my%20value

# HttpUtility requires at least .NET 1.1 to be installed.
$url3 = [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode("http://test.com?test=my value")
# url3: http%3a%2f%2ftest.com%3ftest%3dmy+value

Note: More info on HTTPUtility.

# Quick Start: Decoding

Note: these examples use the variables created in the Quick Start: Encoding section above.

# url1: http%3A%2F%2Ftest.com%3Ftest%3Dmy%20value
[uri]::UnescapeDataString($url1)
# Returns: http://test.com?test=my value

# url2: http://test.com?test=my%20value
[uri]::UnescapeDataString($url2)
# Returns: http://test.com?test=my value

# url3: http%3a%2f%2ftest.com%3ftest%3dmy+value
[uri]::UnescapeDataString($url3)
# Returns: http://test.com?test=my+value

# Note: There is no `[uri]::UnescapeUriString()`; 
#       which makes sense since the `[uri]::UnescapeDataString()` 
#       function handles everything it would handle plus more.

# HttpUtility requires at least .NET 1.1 to be installed.
# url1: http%3A%2F%2Ftest.com%3Ftest%3Dmy%20value
[System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlDecode($url1)
# Returns: http://test.com?test=my value

# HttpUtility requires at least .NET 1.1 to be installed.
# url2: http://test.com?test=my%20value
[System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlDecode($url2)
# Returns: http://test.com?test=my value

# HttpUtility requires at least .NET 1.1 to be installed.
# url3: http%3a%2f%2ftest.com%3ftest%3dmy+value
[System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlDecode($url3)
# Returns: http://test.com?test=my value

Note: More info on HTTPUtility.

# Encode Query String with [uri]::EscapeDataString()

$scheme = 'https'
$url_format = '{0}://example.vertigion.com/foos?{1}'
$qs_data = @{
    'foo1'='bar1';
    'foo2'= 'complex;/?:@&=+$, bar''"';
    'complex;/?:@&=+$, foo''"'='bar2';
}

[System.Collections.ArrayList] $qs_array = @()
foreach ($qs in $qs_data.GetEnumerator()) {
    $qs_key = [uri]::EscapeDataString($qs.Name)
    $qs_value = [uri]::EscapeDataString($qs.Value)
    $qs_array.Add("${qs_key}=${qs_value}") | Out-Null
}

$url = $url_format -f @([uri]::"UriScheme${scheme}", ($qs_array -join '&'))

With [uri]::EscapeDataString(), you will notice that the apostrophe (') was not encoded:

[https://example.vertigion.com/foos](https://example.vertigion.com/foos)? foo2=complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20bar'%22& complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20foo'%22=bar2&foo1=bar1

# Decode URL with [uri]::UnescapeDataString()

Encoded with [uri]::EscapeDataString()

First, we'll decode the URL and Query String encoded with [uri]::EscapeDataString() in the above example:

[https://example.vertigion.com/foos](https://example.vertigion.com/foos)? foo2=complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20bar'%22& complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20foo'%22=bar2&foo1=bar1

$url = 'https://example.vertigion.com/foos?foo2=complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20bar''%22&complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20foo''%22=bar2&foo1=bar1'
$url_parts_regex = '^(([^:/?#]+):)?(//([^/?#]*))?([^?#]*)(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?' # See Remarks

if ($url -match $url_parts_regex) {
    $url_parts = @{
        'Scheme' = $Matches[2];
        'Server' = $Matches[4];
        'Path' = $Matches[5];
        'QueryString' = $Matches[7];
        'QueryStringParts' = @{}
    }

    foreach ($qs in $query_string.Split('&')) {
        $qs_key, $qs_value = $qs.Split('=')
        $url_parts.QueryStringParts.Add(
            [uri]::UnescapeDataString($qs_key),
            [uri]::UnescapeDataString($qs_value)
        ) | Out-Null
    }
} else {
    Throw [System.Management.Automation.ParameterBindingException] "Invalid URL Supplied"
}

This gives you back [hashtable]$url_parts; which equals (Note: the spaces in the complex parts are spaces):

PS > $url_parts

Name                           Value
----                           -----
Scheme                         https
Path                           /foos
Server                         example.vertigion.com
QueryString                    foo2=complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20bar'%22&complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20foo'%22=bar2&foo1=bar1
QueryStringParts               {foo2, complex;/?:@&=+$, foo'", foo1}


PS > $url_parts.QueryStringParts

Name                           Value
----                           -----
foo2                           complex;/?:@&=+$, bar'"
complex;/?:@&=+$, foo'"        bar2
foo1                           bar1

Encoded with [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode()

Now, we'll decode the URL and Query String encoded with [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode() in the above example:

[https://example.vertigion.com/foos](https://example.vertigion.com/foos)? foo2=complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+bar%27%22& complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+foo%27%22=bar2&foo1=bar1

$url = 'https://example.vertigion.com/foos?foo2=complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+bar%27%22&complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+foo%27%22=bar2&foo1=bar1'
$url_parts_regex = '^(([^:/?#]+):)?(//([^/?#]*))?([^?#]*)(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?' # See Remarks

if ($url -match $url_parts_regex) {
    $url_parts = @{
        'Scheme' = $Matches[2];
        'Server' = $Matches[4];
        'Path' = $Matches[5];
        'QueryString' = $Matches[7];
        'QueryStringParts' = @{}
    }

    foreach ($qs in $query_string.Split('&')) {
        $qs_key, $qs_value = $qs.Split('=')
        $url_parts.QueryStringParts.Add(
            [uri]::UnescapeDataString($qs_key),
            [uri]::UnescapeDataString($qs_value)
        ) | Out-Null
    }
} else {
    Throw [System.Management.Automation.ParameterBindingException] "Invalid URL Supplied"
}

This gives you back [hashtable]$url_parts, which equals (Note: the spaces in the complex parts are plus signs (+) in the first part and spaces in the second part):

PS > $url_parts

Name                           Value
----                           -----
Scheme                         https
Path                           /foos
Server                         example.vertigion.com
QueryString                    foo2=complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+bar%27%22&complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+foo%27%22=bar2&foo1=bar1
QueryStringParts               {foo2, complex;/?:@&=+$, foo'", foo1}


PS > $url_parts.QueryStringParts

Name                           Value
----                           -----
foo2                           complex;/?:@&=+$, bar'"
complex;/?:@&=+$, foo'"        bar2
foo1                           bar1

# Decode URL with [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlDecode()

Encoded with [uri]::EscapeDataString()

First, we'll decode the URL and Query String encoded with [uri]::EscapeDataString() in the above example:

[https://example.vertigion.com/foos](https://example.vertigion.com/foos)? foo2=complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20bar'%22& complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20foo'%22=bar2&foo1=bar1

$url = 'https://example.vertigion.com/foos?foo2=complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20bar''%22&complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20foo''%22=bar2&foo1=bar1'
$url_parts_regex = '^(([^:/?#]+):)?(//([^/?#]*))?([^?#]*)(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?' # See Remarks

if ($url -match $url_parts_regex) {
    $url_parts = @{
        'Scheme' = $Matches[2];
        'Server' = $Matches[4];
        'Path' = $Matches[5];
        'QueryString' = $Matches[7];
        'QueryStringParts' = @{}
    }

    foreach ($qs in $query_string.Split('&')) {
        $qs_key, $qs_value = $qs.Split('=')
        $url_parts.QueryStringParts.Add(
            [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlDecode($qs_key),
            [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlDecode($qs_value)
        ) | Out-Null
    }
} else {
    Throw [System.Management.Automation.ParameterBindingException] "Invalid URL Supplied"
}

This gives you back [hashtable]$url_parts; which equals (Note: the spaces in the complex parts are spaces):

PS > $url_parts

Name                           Value
----                           -----
Scheme                         https
Path                           /foos
Server                         example.vertigion.com
QueryString                    foo2=complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20bar'%22&complex%3B%2F%3F%3A%40%26%3D%2B%24%2C%20foo'%22=bar2&foo1=bar1
QueryStringParts               {foo2, complex;/?:@&=+$, foo'", foo1}


PS > $url_parts.QueryStringParts

Name                           Value
----                           -----
foo2                           complex;/?:@&=+$, bar'"
complex;/?:@&=+$, foo'"        bar2
foo1                           bar1

Encoded with [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode()

Now, we'll decode the URL and Query String encoded with [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlEncode() in the above example:

[https://example.vertigion.com/foos](https://example.vertigion.com/foos)? foo2=complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+bar%27%22& complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+foo%27%22=bar2&foo1=bar1

$url = 'https://example.vertigion.com/foos?foo2=complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+bar%27%22&complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+foo%27%22=bar2&foo1=bar1'
$url_parts_regex = '^(([^:/?#]+):)?(//([^/?#]*))?([^?#]*)(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?' # See Remarks

if ($url -match $url_parts_regex) {
    $url_parts = @{
        'Scheme' = $Matches[2];
        'Server' = $Matches[4];
        'Path' = $Matches[5];
        'QueryString' = $Matches[7];
        'QueryStringParts' = @{}
    }

    foreach ($qs in $query_string.Split('&')) {
        $qs_key, $qs_value = $qs.Split('=')
        $url_parts.QueryStringParts.Add(
            [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlDecode($qs_key),
            [System.Web.HttpUtility]::UrlDecode($qs_value)
        ) | Out-Null
    }
} else {
    Throw [System.Management.Automation.ParameterBindingException] "Invalid URL Supplied"
}

This gives you back [hashtable]$url_parts; which equals (Note: the spaces in the complex parts are spaces):

PS > $url_parts

Name                           Value
----                           -----
Scheme                         https
Path                           /foos
Server                         example.vertigion.com
QueryString                    foo2=complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+bar%27%22&complex%3b%2f%3f%3a%40%26%3d%2b%24%2c+foo%27%22=bar2&foo1=bar1
QueryStringParts               {foo2, complex;/?:@&=+$, foo'", foo1}


PS > $url_parts.QueryStringParts

Name                           Value
----                           -----
foo2                           complex;/?:@&=+$, bar'"
complex;/?:@&=+$, foo'"        bar2
foo1                           bar1

# Remarks

The regular expression used in the Decode URL examples was taken from RFC 2396, Appendix B: Parsing a URI Reference with a Regular Expression; for posterity, here's a quote:

The following line is the regular expression for breaking-down a URI reference into its components.

^(([^:/?#]+):)?(//([^/?#]*))?([^?#]*)(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?
 12            3  4          5       6  7        8 9

The numbers in the second line above are only to assist readability; they indicate the reference points for each subexpression (i.e., each paired parenthesis). We refer to the value matched for subexpression as $. For example, matching the above expression to

http://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/ietf/uri/#Related

results in the following subexpression matches:

$1 = http:
$2 = http
$3 = //www.ics.uci.edu
$4 = www.ics.uci.edu
$5 = /pub/ietf/uri/
$6 = <undefined>
$7 = <undefined>
$8 = #Related
$9 = Related