# Template Literals

Template literals are a type of string literal that allows values to be interpolated, and optionally the interpolation and construction behaviour to be controlled using a "tag" function.

# Basic interpolation and multiline strings

Template literals are a special type of string literal that can be used instead of the standard '...' or "...". They are declared by quoting the string with backticks instead of the standard single or double quotes: ....

Template literals can contain line breaks and arbitrary expressions can be embedded using the ${ expression } substitution syntax. By default, the values of these substitution expressions are concatenated directly into the string where they appear.

const name = "John";
const score = 74;

console.log(`Game Over!

${name}'s score was ${score * 10}.`);

Game Over!

John's score was 740.

# Tagged strings

A function identified immediately before a template literal is used to interpret it, in what is called a tagged template literal. The tag function can return a string, but it can also return any other type of value.

The first argument to the tag function, strings, is an Array of each constant piece of the literal. The remaining arguments, ...substitutions, contain the evaluated values of each ${} substitution expression.

function settings(strings, ...substitutions) {
  const result = new Map();
  for (let i = 0; i < substitutions.length; i++) {
    result.set(strings[i].trim(), substitutions[i]);
  return result;

const remoteConfiguration = settings`
  label    ${'Content'}
  servers  ${2 * 8 + 1}
  hostname ${location.hostname}

Map {"label" => "Content", "servers" => 17, "hostname" => "stackoverflow.com"}

The strings Array has a special .raw property referencing a parallel Array of the same constant pieces of the template literal but exactly as they appear in the source code, without any backslash-escapes being replaced.

function example(strings, ...substitutions) {
  console.log('strings:', strings);
  console.log('...substitutions:', substitutions);

example`Hello ${'world'}.\n\nHow are you?`;

strings: ["Hello ", ".\n\nHow are you?", raw: ["Hello ", ".\\n\\nHow are you?"]]
substitutions: ["world"]

# Raw strings

The String.raw tag function can be used with template literals to access a version of their contents without interpreting any backslash escape sequences.

String.raw\nwill contain a backslash and the lowercase letter n, while\n`` or '\n' would contain a single newline character instead.

const patternString = String.raw`Welcome, (\w+)!`;
const pattern = new RegExp(patternString);

const message = "Welcome, John!";

["Welcome, John!", "John"]

# Templating HTML With Template Strings

You can create an HTML...`` template string tag function to automatically encodes interpolated values. (This requires that interpolated values are only used as text, and may not be safe if interpolated values are used in code such as scripts or styles.)

class HTMLString extends String {
  static escape(text) {
    if (text instanceof HTMLString) {
      return text;
    return new HTMLString(
            .replace(/&/g, '&amp;')
            .replace(/</g, '&lt;')
            .replace(/>/g, '&gt;')
            .replace(/"/g, '&quot;')
            .replace(/\\/g, '&#39;'));

function HTML(strings, ...substitutions) { 
  const escapedFlattenedSubstitutions =
      substitutions.map(s => [].concat(s).map(HTMLString.escape).join(''));
  const pieces = [];
  for (const i of strings.keys()) {
    pieces.push(strings[i], escapedFlattenedSubstitutions [i] || '');
  return new HTMLString(pieces.join(''));

const title = "Hello World";
const iconSrc = "/images/logo.png";
const names = ["John", "Jane", "Joe", "Jill"];

document.body.innerHTML = HTML`
  <h1><img src="${iconSrc}" /> ${title}</h1>

  <ul> ${names.map(name => HTML`
  `)} </ul>

# Introduction

Template Literals act like strings with special features. They are enclosed by by the back-tick ```js` and can be spanned across multiple lines.

Template Literals can contain embedded expressions too. These expressions are indicated by a $ sign and curly braces {}

//A single line Template Literal  
var aLiteral = `single line string data`;

//Template Literal that spans across lines       
var anotherLiteral = `string data that spans
         across multiple lines of code`;     

//Template Literal with an embedded expression
var x = 2;
var y = 3; 
var theTotal = `The total is ${x + y}`;     // Contains "The total is 5" 

//Comarison of a string and a template literal
var aString = "single line string data"
console.log(aString === aLiteral)                         //Returns true

There are many other features of String Literals such as Tagged Template Literals and Raw property. These are demonstrated in other examples.

# Syntax

  • message = Welcome, ${user.name}!
  • pattern = new RegExp(String.rawWelcome, (\w+)!);
  • query = SQLINSERT INTO User (name) VALUES (${name})

# Remarks

Template Literals were first specified by ECMAScript 6 §12.2.9 (opens new window).