# # Tuples (Pairs, Triples, ...)

## # Extract tuple components

Use the `fst`

and `snd`

functions (from `Prelude`

or `Data.Tuple`

) to extract the first and second component of pairs.

```
fst (1, 2) -- evaluates to 1
snd (1, 2) -- evaluates to 2
```

Or use pattern matching.

```
case (1, 2) of (result, _) => result -- evaluates to 1
case (1, 2) of (_, result) => result -- evaluates to 2
```

Pattern matching also works for tuples with more than two components.

```
case (1, 2, 3) of (result, _, _) => result -- evaluates to 1
case (1, 2, 3) of (_, result, _) => result -- evaluates to 2
case (1, 2, 3) of (_, _, result) => result -- evaluates to 3
```

Haskell does not provide standard functions like `fst`

or `snd`

for tuples with more than two components. The `tuple`

(opens new window) library on Hackage provides such functions in the `Data.Tuple.Select`

(opens new window) module.

## # Strictness of matching a tuple

The pattern `(p1, p2)`

is strict in the outermost tuple constructor, which can lead to unexpected strictness behaviour (opens new window). For example, the following expression diverges (using `Data.Function.fix`

):

```
fix $ \(x, y) -> (1, 2)
```

since the match on `(x, y)`

is strict in the tuple constructor. However, the following expression, using an irrefutable pattern (opens new window), evaluates to `(1, 2)`

as expected:

```
fix $ \ ~(x, y) -> (1, 2)
```

## # Construct tuple values

Use parentheses and commas to create tuples. Use one comma to create a pair.

```
(1, 2)
```

Use more commas to create tuples with more components.

```
(1, 2, 3)
(1, 2, 3, 4)
```

Note that it is also possible to declare tuples using in their unsugared form.

```
(,) 1 2 -- equivalent to (1,2)
(,,) 1 2 3 -- equivalent to (1,2,3)
```

Tuples can contain values of different types.

```
("answer", 42, '?')
```

Tuples can contain complex values such as lists or more tuples.

```
([1, 2, 3], "hello", ('A', 65))
(1, (2, (3, 4), 5), 6)
```

## # Write tuple types

Use parentheses and commas to write tuple types. Use one comma to write a pair type.

```
(Int, Int)
```

Use more commas to write tuple types with more components.

```
(Int, Int, Int)
(Int, Int, Int, Int)
```

Tuples can contain values of different types.

```
(String, Int, Char)
```

Tuples can contain complex values such as lists or more tuples.

```
([Int], String, (Char, Int))
(Int, (Int, (Int, Int), Int), Int)
```

## # Pattern Match on Tuples

Pattern matching on tuples uses the tuple constructors. To match a pair for example, we'd use the `(,)`

constructor:

```
myFunction1 (a, b) = ...
```

We use more commas to match tuples with more components:

```
myFunction2 (a, b, c) = ...
myFunction3 (a, b, c, d) = ...
```

Tuple patterns can contain complex patterns such as list patterns or more tuple patterns.

```
myFunction4 ([a, b, c], d, e) = ...
myFunction5 (a, (b, (c, d), e), f) = ...
```

## # Apply a binary function to a tuple (uncurrying)

Use the `uncurry`

function (from `Prelude`

or `Data.Tuple`

) to convert a binary function to a function on tuples.

```
uncurry (+) (1, 2) -- computes 3
uncurry map (negate, [1, 2, 3]) -- computes [-1, -2, -3]
uncurry uncurry ((+), (1, 2)) -- computes 3
map (uncurry (+)) [(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)] -- computes [3, 7, 11]
uncurry (curry f) -- computes the same as f
```

## # Apply a tuple function to two arguments (currying)

Use the `curry`

function (from `Prelude`

or `Data.Tuple`

) to convert a function that takes tuples to a function that takes two arguments.

```
curry fst 1 2 -- computes 1
curry snd 1 2 -- computes 2
curry (uncurry f) -- computes the same as f
import Data.Tuple (swap)
curry swap 1 2 -- computes (2, 1)
```

## # Swap pair components

Use `swap`

(from `Data.Tuple`

) to swap the components of a pair.

```
import Data.Tuple (swap)
swap (1, 2) -- evaluates to (2, 1)
```

Or use pattern matching.

```
case (1, 2) of (x, y) => (y, x) -- evaluates to (2, 1)
```