# Pipes

# Producers

A Producer is some monadic action that can yield values for downstream consumption:

type Producer b = Proxy X () () b
yield :: Monad m => a -> Producer a m ()

For example:

naturals :: Monad m => Producer Int m ()
naturals = each [1..] -- each is a utility function exported by Pipes

We can of course have Producers that are functions of other values too:

naturalsUntil :: Monad m => Int -> Producer Int m ()
naturalsUntil n = each [1..n]

# Connecting Pipes

Use >-> to connect Producers, Consumers and Pipes to compose larger Pipe functions.

printNaturals :: MonadIO m => Effect m ()
printNaturals = naturalsUntil 10 >-> intToStr >-> fancyPrint

Producer, Consumer, Pipe, and Effect types are all defined in terms of the general Proxy type. Therefore >-> can be used for a variety of purposes. Types defined by the left argument must match the type consumed by the right argument:

(>->) :: Monad m => Producer b m r -> Consumer b   m r -> Effect       m r
(>->) :: Monad m => Producer b m r -> Pipe     b c m r -> Producer   c m r
(>->) :: Monad m => Pipe   a b m r -> Consumer b   m r -> Consumer a   m r
(>->) :: Monad m => Pipe   a b m r -> Pipe     b c m r -> Pipe     a c m r

# Pipes

Pipes can both await and yield.

type Pipe a b = Proxy () a () b

This Pipe awaits an Int and converts it to a String:

intToStr :: Monad m => Pipe Int String m ()
intToStr = forever $ await >>= (yield . show)

# Running Pipes with runEffect

We use runEffect to run our Pipe:

main :: IO ()
main = do
  runEffect $ naturalsUntil 10 >-> intToStr >-> fancyPrint

Note that runEffect requires an Effect, which is a self-contained Proxy with no inputs or outputs:

runEffect :: Monad m => Effect m r -> m r
type Effect = Proxy X () () X

(where X is the empty type, also known as Void).

# Consumers

A Consumer can only await values from upstream.

type Consumer a = Proxy () a () X
await :: Monad m => Consumer a m a

For example:

fancyPrint :: MonadIO m => Consumer String m ()
fancyPrint = forever $ do
  numStr <- await
  liftIO $ putStrLn ("I received: " ++ numStr)

# The Proxy monad transformer

pipes's core data type is the Proxy monad transformer. Pipe, Producer, Consumer and so on are defined in terms of Proxy.

Since Proxy is a monad transformer, definitions of Pipes take the form of monadic scripts which await and yield values, additionally performing effects from the base monad m.

# Combining Pipes and Network communication

Pipes supports simple binary communication between a client and a server

In this example:

  1. a client connects and sends a FirstMessage
  2. the server receives and answers DoSomething 0
  3. the client receives and answers DoNothing
  4. step 2 and 3 are repeated indefinitely

The command data type exchanged over the network:

-- Command.hs
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveGeneric #-}
module Command where
import Data.Binary
import GHC.Generics (Generic)

data Command = FirstMessage
           | DoNothing
           | DoSomething Int
           deriving (Show,Generic)

instance Binary Command

Here, the server waits for a client to connect:

module Server where

import Pipes 
import qualified Pipes.Binary as PipesBinary
import qualified Pipes.Network.TCP as PNT
import qualified Command as C
import qualified Pipes.Parse as PP
import qualified Pipes.Prelude as PipesPrelude

pageSize :: Int
pageSize = 4096

-- pure handler, to be used with PipesPrelude.map
pureHandler :: C.Command -> C.Command 
pureHandler c = c  -- answers the same command that we have receveid

-- impure handler, to be used with PipesPremude.mapM
sideffectHandler :: MonadIO m => C.Command -> m C.Command
sideffectHandler c = do
  liftIO $ putStrLn $ "received message = " ++ (show c)
  return $ C.DoSomething 0    
  -- whatever incoming command `c` from the client, answer DoSomething 0

main :: IO ()
main = PNT.serve (PNT.Host "127.0.0.1") "23456" $
  \(connectionSocket, remoteAddress) -> do
                 putStrLn $ "Remote connection from ip = " ++ (show remoteAddress)
                 _ <- runEffect $ do
                   let bytesReceiver = PNT.fromSocket connectionSocket pageSize
                   let commandDecoder = PP.parsed PipesBinary.decode bytesReceiver
                   commandDecoder >-> PipesPrelude.mapM sideffectHandler >-> for cat PipesBinary.encode >-> PNT.toSocket connectionSocket
                   -- if we want to use the pureHandler
                   --commandDecoder >-> PipesPrelude.map pureHandler >-> for cat PipesBinary.Encode >-> PNT.toSocket connectionSocket
                 return ()

The client connects thus:

module Client where

import Pipes
import qualified Pipes.Binary as PipesBinary
import qualified Pipes.Network.TCP as PNT
import qualified Pipes.Prelude as PipesPrelude
import qualified Pipes.Parse as PP
import qualified Command as C

pageSize :: Int
pageSize = 4096

-- pure handler, to be used with PipesPrelude.amp
pureHandler :: C.Command -> C.Command 
pureHandler c = c  -- answer the same command received from the server

-- inpure handler, to be used with PipesPremude.mapM
sideffectHandler :: MonadIO m => C.Command -> m C.Command
sideffectHandler c = do
  liftIO $ putStrLn $ "Received: " ++ (show c)
  return C.DoNothing  -- whatever is received from server, answer DoNothing

main :: IO ()
main = PNT.connect ("127.0.0.1") "23456" $
  \(connectionSocket, remoteAddress) -> do
    putStrLn $ "Connected to distant server ip = " ++ (show remoteAddress)
    sendFirstMessage connectionSocket
    _ <- runEffect $ do
      let bytesReceiver = PNT.fromSocket connectionSocket pageSize
      let commandDecoder = PP.parsed PipesBinary.decode bytesReceiver
      commandDecoder >-> PipesPrelude.mapM sideffectHandler >-> for cat PipesBinary.encode >-> PNT.toSocket connectionSocket
    return ()

sendFirstMessage :: PNT.Socket -> IO ()
sendFirstMessage s = do
  _ <- runEffect $ do
    let encodedProducer = PipesBinary.encode C.FirstMessage 
    encodedProducer >-> PNT.toSocket s  
  return ()

# Remarks

As the hackage page describes:

pipes is a clean and powerful stream processing library that lets you build and connect reusable streaming components

Programs implemented through streaming can often be succinct and composable, with simple, short functions allowing you to "slot in or out" features easily with the backing of the Haskell type system.

await :: Monad m => Consumer' a m a

Pulls a value from upstream, where a is our input type.

yield :: Monad m => a -> Producer' a m ()

Produce a value, where a is the output type.

It's highly recommended you read through the embedded Pipes.Tutorial package which gives an excellent overview of the core concepts of Pipes and how Producer, Consumer and Effect interact.