# Checking the syntax of a script with "-n"
The -n flag enables you to check the syntax of a script without having to execute it:
~> $ bash -n testscript.sh testscript.sh: line 128: unexpected EOF while looking for matching `"' testscript.sh: line 130: syntax error: unexpected end of file
# Debugging usigh bashdb
Bashdb is a utility that is similar to gdb, in that you can do things like set breakpoints at a line or at a function, print content of variables, you can restart script execution and more.
You can normally install it via your package manager, for example on Fedora:
sudo dnf install bashdb
Or get it from the homepage (opens new window). Then you can run it with your script as a paramater:
bashdb <YOUR SCRIPT>
Here are a few commands to get you started:
l - show local lines, press l again to scroll down s - step to next line print $VAR - echo out content of variable restart - reruns bashscript, it re-loads it prior to execution. eval - evaluate some custom command, ex: eval echo hi b <line num> set breakpoint on some line c - continue till some breakpoint i b - info on break points d <line #> - delete breakpoint at line # shell - launch a sub-shell in the middle of execution, this is handy for manipulating variables
For more information, I recommend consulting the manual: http://www.rodericksmith.plus.com/outlines/manuals/bashdbOutline.html (opens new window)
See also homepage:
http://bashdb.sourceforge.net/ (opens new window)
# Debugging a bash script with "-x"
Use "-x" to enable debug output of executed lines. It can be run on an entire session or script, or enabled programmatically within a script.
Run a script with debug output enabled:
$ bash -x myscript.sh
$ bash --debug myscript.sh
Turn on debugging within a bash script. It may optionally be turned back on, though debug output is automatically reset when the script exits.
#!/bin/bash set -x # Enable debugging # some code here set +x # Disable debugging output.