# Variables

# Scalars

Scalars are Perl's most basic data type. They're marked with the sigil $ and hold a single value of one of three types:

  • a number (3, 42, 3.141, etc.)
  • a string ('hi', "abc", etc.)
  • a reference to a variable (see other examples).
my $integer = 3;                      # number
my $string = "Hello World";           # string
my $reference = \$string;             # reference to $string

Perl converts between numbers and strings on the fly, based on what a particular operator expects.

my $number = '41';                    # string '41'
my $meaning = $number + 1;            # number  42
my $sadness = '20 apples';            # string '20 apples'
my $danger = $sadness * 2;            # number '40', raises warning

When converting a string into a number, Perl takes as many digits from the front of a string as it can – hence why 20 apples is converted into 20 in the last line.

Based on whether you want to treat the contents of a scalar as a string or a number, you need to use different operators. Do not mix them.

# String comparison                   # Number comparison
'Potato' eq 'Potato';                 42 == 42;
'Potato' ne 'Pomato';                 42 != 24;
'Camel'  lt 'Potato';                 41 < 42;
'Zombie' gt 'Potato';                 43 > 42;

# String concatenation                # Number summation
'Banana' . 'phone';                   23 + 19;

# String repetition                   # Number multiplication 
'nan' x 3;                            6 * 7;

Attempting to use string operations on numbers will not raise warnings; attempting to use number operations on non-numeric strings will. Do be aware that some non-digit strings such as 'inf', 'nan', '0 but true' count as numbers.

# Array References

Array References are scalars ($) which refer to Arrays.

my @array = ("Hello"); # Creating array, assigning value from a list
my $array_reference = \@array;

These can be created more short-hand as follows:

my $other_array_reference = ["Hello"];

Modifying / Using array references require dereferencing them first.

my @contents = @{ $array_reference };               # Prefix notation
my @contents = @$array_reference;                   # Braces can be left out

New postfix dereference syntax, available by default from v5.24

use v5.24;
my @contents = $array_reference->@*; # New postfix notation 

When accessing an arrayref's contents by index you can use the -> syntactical sugar.

my @array = qw(one two three);      my $arrayref = [ qw(one two three) ]
my $one = $array[0];                my $one = $arrayref->[0];

Unlike arrays, arrayrefs can be nested:

my @array = ( (1, 0), (0, 1) )  # ONE array of FOUR elements: (1, 0, 0, 1)
my @matrix = ( [1, 0], [0, 1] ) # an array of two arrayrefs
my $matrix = [ [0, 1], [1, 0] ] # an arrayref of arrayrefs
# There is no namespace conflict between scalars, arrays and hashes
# so @matrix and $matrix _both_ exist at this point and hold different values.

my @diagonal_1 = ($matrix[0]->[1], $matrix[1]->[0])     # uses @matrix
my @diagonal_2 = ($matrix->[0]->[1], $matrix->[1]->[0]) # uses $matrix
# Since chained []- and {}-access can only happen on references, you can
# omit some of those arrows.
my $corner_1 = $matrix[0][1];   # uses @matrix;
my $corner_2 = $matrix->[0][1]; # uses $matrix;  

When used as Boolean, references are always true.

# Arrays

Arrays store an ordered sequence of values. You can access the contents by index, or iterate over them. The values will stay in the order you filled them in.

my @numbers_to_ten = (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10); # More conveniently: (1..10)
my @chars_of_hello = ('h','e','l','l','o');
my @word_list = ('Hello','World');

# Note the sigil: access an @array item with $array[index]
my $second_char_of_hello = $chars_of_hello[1]; # 'e'

# Use negative indices to count from the end (with -1 being last)
my $last_char_of_hello = $chars_of_hello[-1];

# Assign an array to a scalar to get the length of the array
my $length_of_array = @chars_of_hello; # 5

# You can use $# to get the last index of an array, and confuse Stack Overflow
my $last_index_of_array = $#chars_of_hello; # 4

# You can also access multiple elements of an array at the same time
# This is called "array slice"
# Since this returns multiple values, the sigil to use here on the RHS is @
my @some_chars_of_hello = @chars_of_hello[1..3]; # ('H', 'e', 'l')
my @out_of_order_chars = @chars_of_hello[1,4,2]; # ('e', 'o', 'l')

# In Python you can say array[1:-1] to get all elements but first and last
# Not so in Perl: (1..-1) is an empty list. Use $# instead
my @empty_list = @chars_of_hello[1..-1];                           # ()
my @inner_chars_of_hello = @chars_of_hello[1..$#chars_of_hello-1]; # ('e','l','l')

# Access beyond the end of the array yields undef, not an error
my $undef = $chars_of_hello[6]; # undef    

Arrays are mutable:

use utf8; # necessary because this snippet is utf-8
$chars_of_hello[1] = 'u';              #     ('h','u','l','l','o')
push @chars_of_hello, ('!', '!');      #     ('h','u','l','l','o','!','!')
pop @chars_of_hello;                   #     ('h','u','l','l','o','!')
shift @chars_of_hello;                 #         ('u','l','l','o','!')
unshift @chars_of_hello, ('¡', 'H');   # ('¡','H','u','l','l','o','!')
@chars_of_hello[2..5] = ('O','L','A'); # ('¡','H','O','L','A',undef,'!') whoops! 
delete $chars_of_hello[-2];            # ('¡','H','O','L','A',      '!')

# Setting elements beyond the end of an array does not result in an error
# The array is extended with undef's as necessary. This is "autovivification."
my @array;           # ()
my @array[3] = 'x';  # (undef, undef, undef, 'x')

Finally, you can loop over the contents of an array:

use v5.10; # necessary for 'say'
for my $number (@numbers_to_ten) {
  say $number ** 2;
}

When used as booleans, arrays are true if they are not empty.

# Scalar References

A reference is a scalar variable (one prefixed by $ ) which “refers to” some other data.

my $value     = "Hello";
my $reference = \$value;
print $value;     # => Hello
print $reference; # => SCALAR(0x2683310)

To get the referred-to data, you de-reference it.

say ${$reference};                  # Explicit prefix syntax
say $$reference;                    # The braces can be left out (confusing)

New postfix dereference syntax, available by default from v5.24

use v5.24;
say $reference->$*; # New postfix notation

This "de-referenced value" can then be changed like it was the original variable.

${$reference} =~ s/Hello/World/;
print ${$reference};  # => World
print $value;         # => World

A reference is always truthy – even if the value it refers to is falsy (like 0 or "").

# You may want a Scalar Reference If:

  • You want to pass a string to a function, and have it modify that string for you without it being a return value.
  • You wish to explicitly avoid Perl implicitly copying the contents of a large string at some point in your function passing ( especially relevant on older Perls without copy-on-write strings )
  • You wish to disambiguate string-like values with specific meaning, from strings that convey content, for example:
      - Disambiguate a file name from file content - Disambiguate returned content from a returned error string

      You wish to implement a lightweight inside out object model, where objects handed to calling code don't carry user visible metadata:

      our %objects;
      my $next_id = 0;
      sub new { 
         my $object_id = $next_id++;
         $objects{ $object_id } = { ... }; # Assign data for object
         my $ref = \$object_id;
         return bless( $ref, "MyClass" );
      }
      
      

      # Typeglobs, typeglob refs, filehandles and constants

      A typeglob *foo holds references to the contents of global variables with that name: $foo, @foo, $foo, &foo, etc. You can access it like an hash and assign to manipulate the symbol tables directly (evil!).

      use v5.10; # necessary for say
      our $foo = "foo";
      our $bar;
      say ref *foo{SCALAR};     # SCALAR
      say ${ *foo{SCALAR} };    # bar
      *bar = *foo;
      say $bar;                 # bar
      $bar = 'egg';
      say $foo;                 # egg
      
      

      Typeglobs are more commonly handled when dealing with files. open, for example, produces a reference to a typeglob when asked to create a non-global filehandle:

      use v5.10; # necessary for say
      open(my $log, '> utf-8', '/tmp/log') or die $!; # open for writing with encoding
      say $log 'Log opened';
      
      # You can dereference this globref, but it's not very useful.
      say ref $log;                   # GLOB
      say (*{$log}->{IO} // 'undef'); # undef
      
      close $log or die $!;
      
      

      Typeglobs can also be used to make global read-only variables, though use constant is in broader use.

      # Global constant creation
      *TRUE = \('1');
      our $TRUE;
      say $TRUE;  # 1
      $TRUE = ''; # dies, "Modification of a read-only value attempted"
      
      # use constant instead defines a parameterless function, therefore it's not global,
      # can be used without sigils, can be imported, but does not interpolate easily.
      use constant (FALSE => 0);
      say FALSE;        # 0
      say &FALSE;       # 0
      say "${\FALSE}";  # 0 (ugh)
      say *FALSE{CODE}; # CODE(0xMA1DBABE)
      
      # Of course, neither is truly constant when you can manipulate the symbol table...
      *TRUE = \('');
      use constant (EVIL => 1);
      *FALSE = *EVIL;
      
      

      # Hashes

      Hashes can be understood as lookup-tables. You can access its contents by specifiying a key for each of them. Keys must be strings. If they're not, they will be converted to strings.

      If you give the hash simply a known key, it will serve you its value.

      # Elements are in (key, value, key, value) sequence
      my %inhabitants_of = ("London", 8674000, "Paris", 2244000);
      
      # You can save some typing and gain in clarity by using the "fat comma"
      # syntactical sugar. It behaves like a comma and quotes what's on the left.
      my %translations_of_hello = (spanish => 'Hola', german => 'Hallo', swedish => 'Hej'); 
      
      

      In the following example, note the brackets and sigil: you access an element of %hash using $hash{key} because the value you want is a scalar. Some consider it good practice to quote the key while others find this style visually noisy. Quoting is only required for keys that could be mistaken for expressions like $hash{'some-key'}

      my $greeting = $translations_of_hello{'spanish'};
      
      

      While Perl by default will try to use barewords as strings, + modifier can also be used to indicate to Perl that key should not be interpolated but executed with result of execution being used as a key:

      my %employee = ( name => 'John Doe', shift => 'night' );
      # this example will print 'night'
      print $employee{shift}; 
      
      # but this one will execute [shift][1], extracting first element from @_,
      # and use result as a key
      print $employee{+shift};
      
      

      Like with arrays, you can access multiple hash elements at the same time. This is called a hash slice. The resulting value is a list, so use the @ sigil:

      my @words = @translations_of_hello{'spanish', 'german'}; # ('Hola', 'Hallo')
      
      

      Iterate over the keys of an hash with keys keys will return items in a random order. Combine with sort if you wish.

      for my $lang (sort keys %translations_of_hello) {
        say $translations_of_hello{$lang};
      }
      
      

      If you do not actually need the keys like in the previous example, values returns the hash's values directly:

      for my $translation (values %translations_of_hello) {
        say $translation;
      }
      
      

      You can also use a while loop with each to iterate over the hash. This way, you will get both the key and the value at the same time, without a separate value lookup. Its use is however discouraged, as each can break in mistifying ways.

      # DISCOURAGED
      while (my ($lang, $translation) = each %translations_of_hello) {
        say $translation;
      }
      
      

      Access to unset elements returns undef, not an error:

      my $italian = $translations_of_hello{'italian'}; # undef
      
      

      map and list flattening can be used to create hashes out of arrays. This is a popular way to create a 'set' of values, e.g. to quickly check whether a value is in @elems. This operation usually takes O(n) time (i.e. proportional to the number of elements) but can be done in constant time (O(1)) by turning the list into a hash:

      @elems = qw(x y x z t);
      my %set = map { $_ => 1 } @elems;   # (x, 1, y, 1, t, 1)
      my $y_membership = $set{'y'};       # 1
      my $w_membership = $set{'w'};       # undef
      
      

      This requires some explanation. The contents of @elems get read into a list, which is processed by map. map accepts a code block that gets called for each value of its input list; the value of the element is available for use in $_. Our code block returns two list elements for each input element: $_, the input element, and 1, just some value. Once you account for list flattening, the outcome is that map { $_ => 1 } @elems turns qw(x y x z t) into (x => 1, y => 1, x => 1, z => 1, t => 1).

      As those elements get assigned into the hash, odd elements become hash keys and even elements become hash values. When a key is specified multiple times in a list to be assigned to a hash, the last value wins. This effectively discards duplicates.

      A faster way to turn a list into a hash uses assignment to a hash slice. It uses the x operator to multiply the single-element list (1) by the size of @elems, so there is a 1 value for each of the keys in the slice on the left hand side:

      @elems = qw(x y x z t);
      my %set;
      @set{@elems} = (1) x @elems;
      
      

      The following application of hashes also exploits the fact that hashes and lists can often be used interchangeably to implement named function args:

      sub hash_args {
        my %args = @_;
        my %defaults = (foo => 1, bar => 0);
        my %overrides = (__unsafe => 0);
        my %settings = (%defaults, %args, %overrides);
      }
      
      # This function can then be called like this:
      hash_args(foo => 5, bar => 3); # (foo => 5, bar => 3, __unsafe ==> 0)
      hash_args();                   # (foo => 1, bar => 0, __unsafe ==> 0)
      hash_args(__unsafe => 1)       # (foo => 1, bar => 0, __unsafe ==> 0)
      
      

      When used as booleans, hashes are true if they are not empty.

      # Hash References

      Hash references are scalars which contain a pointer to the memory location containing the data of a hash. Because the scalar points directly to the hash itself, when it is passed to a subroutine, changes made to the hash are not local to the subroutine as with a regular hash, but instead are global.

      First, let's examine what happens when you pass a normal hash to a subroutine and modify it within there:

      use strict;
      use warnings;
      use Data::Dumper;
      
      sub modify
      {
          my %hash = @_;
      
          $hash{new_value} = 2;
      
          print Dumper("Within the subroutine");
          print Dumper(\%hash);
      
          return;
      }
      
      my %example_hash = (
          old_value   => 1,
      );
      
      modify(%example_hash);
      
      print Dumper("After exiting the subroutine");
      print Dumper(\%example_hash);
      
      

      Which results in:

      $VAR1 = 'Within the subroutine';
      $VAR1 = {
                'new_value' => 2,
                'old_value' => 1
              };
      $VAR1 = 'After exiting the subroutine';
      $VAR1 = {
                'old_value' => 1
              };
      
      

      Notice that after we exit the subroutine, the hash remains unaltered; all changes to it were local to the modify subroutine, because we passed a copy of the hash, not the hash itself.

      In comparison, when you pass a hashref, you are passing the address to the original hash, so any changes made within the subroutine will be made to the original hash:

      use strict;
      use warnings;
      use Data::Dumper;
      
      sub modify
      {
          my $hashref = shift;
      
          # De-reference the hash to add a new value
          $hashref->{new_value} = 2;
      
          print Dumper("Within the subroutine");
          print Dumper($hashref);
      
          return;
      }
      
      # Create a hashref
      my $example_ref = {
          old_value   => 1,
      };
      
      # Pass a hashref to a subroutine
      modify($example_ref);
      
      print Dumper("After exiting the subroutine");
      print Dumper($example_ref);
      
      

      This will result in:

      $VAR1 = 'Within the subroutine';
      $VAR1 = {
                'new_value' => 2,
                'old_value' => 1
              };
      $VAR1 = 'After exiting the subroutine';
      $VAR1 = {
                'new_value' => 2,
                'old_value' => 1
              };
      
      

      # Sigils

      Perl has a number of sigils:

      $scalar = 1; # individual value
      @array = ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ); # sequence of values
      %hash = ('it', 'ciao', 'en', 'hello', 'fr', 'salut'); # unordered key-value pairs
      &function('arguments'); # subroutine
      *typeglob; # symbol table entry
      
      

      These look like sigils, but aren't:

      \@array; # \ returns the reference of what's on the right (so, a reference to @array)
      $#array; # this is the index of the last element of @array
      
      

      You can use braces after the sigil if you should be so inclined. Occasionally, this improves readability.

      say ${value} = 5;
      
      

      While you use different sigils to define variables of different types, the same variable can be accessed in different ways based on what sigils you use.

      %hash;            # we use % because we are looking at an entire hash
      $hash{it};        # we want a single value, however, that's singular, so we use $
      $array[0];        # likewise for an array. notice the change in brackets.
      @array[0,3];      # we want multiple values of an array, so we instead use @
      @hash{'it','en'}; # similarly for hashes (this gives the values: 'ciao', 'hello')
      %hash{'it','fr'}; # we want an hash with just some of the keys, so we use %
                        # (this gives key-value pairs: 'it', 'ciao', 'fr', 'salut')
      
      

      This is especially true of references. In order to use a referenced value you can combine sigils together.

      my @array = 1..5;                    # This is an array
      my $reference_to_an_array = \@array; # A reference to an array is a singular value
      push @array, 6;                      # push expects an array
      push @$reference_to_an_array, 7;     # the @ sigil means what's on the right is an array
                                           # and what's on the right is $reference_to_an_array
                                           # hence: first a @, then a $
      
      

      Here's a perhaps less confusing way to think about it. As we saw earlier, you can use braces to wrap what's on the right of a sigil. So you can think of @{} as something that takes an array reference and gives you the referenced array.

      # pop does not like array references
      pop $reference_to_an_array; # ERROR in Perl 5.20+
      # but if we use @{}, then...
      pop @{ $reference_to_an_array }; # this works!
      
      

      As it turns out, @{} actually accepts an expression:

      my $values = undef;
      say pop @{ $values };       # ERROR: can't use undef as an array reference
      say pop @{ $values // [5] } # undef // [5] gives [5], so this prints 5
      
      

      ...and the same trick works for other sigils, too.

      # This is not an example of good Perl. It is merely a demonstration of this language feature
      my $hashref = undef;
      for my $key ( %{ $hashref // {} } ) {
        "This doesn't crash";
      }
      
      

      ...but if the "argument" to a sigil is simple, you can leave the braces away.

      say $$scalar_reference;
      say pop @$array_reference;
      for keys (%$hash_reference) { ... };
      
      

      Things can get excessively extravagant. This works, but please Perl responsibly.

      my %hash = (it => 'ciao', en => 'hi', fr => 'salut');
      my $reference = \%hash;
      my $reference_to_a_reference = \$reference;
      
      my $italian = $hash{it};                              # Direct access 
      my @greets = @$reference{'it', 'en'};                 # Dereference, then access as array
      my %subhash = %$$reference_to_a_reference{'en', 'fr'} # Dereference ×2 then access as hash
      
      

      For most normal use, you can just use subroutine names without a sigil. (Variables without a sigil are typically called "barewords".) The & sigil is only useful in a limited number of cases.

    • Making a reference to a subroutine:
      sub many_bars { 'bar' x $_[0] }
      my $reference = \&many_bars;
      say $reference->(3); # barbarbar
      
      
    • Calling a function ignoring its prototype.
    • Combined with goto, as a slightly weird function call that has the current call frame replaced with the caller. Think the linux `exec()` API call, but for functions.
    • # Syntax

      • my # Lexical declaration
      • our # Global declaration
      • $foo # Scalar
      • @foo # Array
      • $#foo # Array Last-Index
      • %foo # Hash
      • ${$foo} # Scalar De-Reference
      • @{$foo} # Array De-Reference
      • $#{$foo} # Array-DeRef Last-Index
      • %{$foo} # Hash De-Reference
      • $foo[$index] # Array get indexed
      • ${$foo}[$index] # Array De-Reference and get indexed.
      • $foo->[$index] # Array De-Reference and get indexed ( Simplified )
      • $foo{$key} # Hash get value for key
      • ${$foo}{$key} # Hash Dereference and get value for key
      • $foo->{$key} # Hash Dereference and get value for key ( Simplified )
      • $x # Reference to Scalar
      • @x # Reference to Array
      • %x # Reference to Hash
      • =[ ] # Reference to Anonymous Array (Inline)
      • ={ } # Reference to Anonymous Hash (Inline)