# Lists

# Array as list

The array is one of Perl's basic variable types. It contains a list, which is an ordered sequence of zero or more scalars. The array is the variable holding (and providing access to) the list data, as is documented in perldata.

You can assign a list to an array:

my @foo = ( 4, 5, 6 );

You can use an array wherever a list is expected:

join '-', ( 4, 5, 6 );
join '-', @foo;

Some operators only work with arrays since they mutate the list an array contains:

shift @array;
unshift @array, ( 1, 2, 3 );
pop @array;
push @array, ( 7, 8, 9 );

# Assigning a list to a hash

Lists can also be assigned to hash variables. When creating a list that will be assigned to a hash variable, it is recommended to use the fat comma => between keys and values to show their relationship:

my %hash = ( foo => 42, bar => 43, baz => 44 );

The => is really only a special comma that automatically quotes the operand to its left. So, you could use normal commas, but the relationship is not as clear:

my %hash = ( 'foo', 42, 'bar', 43, 'baz', 44 );

You can also use quoted strings for the left hand operand of the fat comma =>, which is especially useful for keys containing spaces.

my %hash = ( 'foo bar' => 42, 'baz qux' => 43 );

For details see Comma operator at perldoc perlop.

# Lists can be passed into subroutines

As to pass list into a subroutine, you specify the subroutine's name and then supply the list to it:

test_subroutine( 'item1', 'item2' );
test_subroutine  'item1', 'item2';     # same

Internally Perl makes aliases to those arguments and put them into the array @_ which is available within the subroutine:

@_ =  ( 'item1', 'item2' ); # Done internally by perl

You access subroutine arguments like this:

sub test_subroutine {
    print $_[0]; # item1
    print $_[1]; # item2
}

Aliasing gives you the ability to change the original value of argument passed to subroutine:

sub test_subroutine {
    $_[0] +=  2;
}

my $x =  7;
test_subroutine( $x );
print $x; # 9

To prevent inadvertent changes of original values passed into your subroutine, you should copy them:

sub test_subroutine {
    my( $copy_arg1, $copy_arg2 ) =  @_;
    $copy_arg1 += 2;
}

my $x =  7;
test_subroutine $x; # in this case $copy_arg2 will have `undef` value
print $x; # 7

To test how many arguments were passed into the subroutine, check the size of @_

sub test_subroutine {
    print scalar @_, ' argument(s) passed into subroutine';
}

If you pass array arguments into a subroutine they all will be flattened:

my @x =  ( 1, 2, 3 );
my @y =  qw/ a b c /; # ( 'a', 'b', 'c' )
test_some_subroutine @x, 'hi', @y; # 7 argument(s) passed into subroutine
# @_ =  ( 1, 2, 3, 'hi', 'a', 'b', 'c' ) # Done internally for this call

If your test_some_subroutine contains the statement $_[4] = 'd', for the above call it will cause $y[0] to have value d afterwards:

print "@y"; # d b c

# Return list from subroutine

You can, of course, return lists from subs:

sub foo {
    my @list1 =  ( 1, 2, 3 );
    my @list2 =  ( 4, 5 );

    return    ( @list1, @list2 );
}

my @list =  foo();
print @list;          # 12345

But it is not the recommended way to do that unless you know what you are doing.

While this is OK when the result is in LIST context, in SCALAR context things are unclear. Let's take a look at the next line:

print scalar foo();  # 2

Why 2? What is going on?

  1. Because foo() evaluated in SCALAR context, this list ( @list1, @list2 ) also evaluated in SCALAR context
  2. In SCALAR context, LIST returns its last element. Here it is @list2
  3. Again in SCALAR context, array @list2 returns the number of its elements. Here it is 2.

In most cases the right strategy will return references to data structures.
So in our case we should do the following instead:


return    ( \@list1, \@list2 );

Then the caller does something like this to receive the two returned arrayrefs:


my ($list1, $list2) = foo(...);

# Hash as list

In list context hash is flattened.

my @bar =  ( %hash, %hash );

The array @bar is initialized by list of two %hash hashes

  • both %hash are flattened
  • new list is created from flattened items
  • @bar array is initialized by that list

It is guaranteed that key-value pairs goes together. Keys are always even indexed, values - odd. It is not guaranteed that key-value pairs are always flattened in same order:

my %hash =  ( a => 1, b => 2 );
print %hash; # Maybe 'a1b2' or 'b2a1'

# Using arrayref to pass array to sub

The arrayref for @foo is \@foo. This is handy if you need to pass an array and other things to a subroutine. Passing @foo is like passing multiple scalars. But passing \@foo is a single scalar. Inside the subroutine:

xyz(\@foo, 123);
...
sub xyz {
    my ($arr, $etc) = @_;
    print $arr->[0]; # using the first item in $arr. It is like $foo[0]