# Data Types

# Implicit / automatic casting

select '123' * 2;

To make the multiplication with 2 MySQL automatically converts the string 123 into a number.

Return value:

246

The conversion to a number starts from left to right. If the conversion is not possible the result is 0

select '123ABC' * 2

Return value:

246

select 'ABC123' * 2

Return value:

0

# VARCHAR(255) -- or not

Suggested max len

First, I will mention some common strings that are always hex, or otherwise limited to ASCII. For these, you should specify CHARACTER SET ascii (latin1 is ok) so that it will not waste space:

UUID CHAR(36) CHARACTER SET ascii -- or pack into BINARY(16)
country_code CHAR(2) CHARACTER SET ascii
ip_address CHAR(39) CHARACTER SET ascii -- or pack into BINARY(16)
phone VARCHAR(20) CHARACTER SET ascii -- probably enough to handle extension
postal_code VARCHAR(20) CHARACTER SET ascii -- (not 'zip_code') (don't know the max

city VARCHAR(100) -- This Russian town needs 91:
    Poselok Uchebnogo Khozyaystva Srednego Professionalno-Tekhnicheskoye Uchilishche Nomer Odin
country VARCHAR(50) -- probably enough
name VARCHAR(64) -- probably adequate; more than some government agencies allow

Why not simply 255? There are two reasons to avoid the common practice of using (255) for everything.

  • When a complex SELECT needs to create temporary table (for a subquery, UNION, GROUP BY, etc), the preferred choice is to use the MEMORY engine, which puts the data in RAM. But VARCHARs are turned into CHAR in the process. This makes VARCHAR(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 take 1020 bytes. That can lead to needing to spill to disk, which is slower.
  • In certain situations, InnoDB will look at the potential size of the columns in a table and decide that it will be too big, aborting a CREATE TABLE.

VARCHAR versus TEXT

Usage hints for *TEXT, CHAR, and VARCHAR, plus some Best Practice:

  • Never use TINYTEXT.
  • Almost never use CHAR -- it is fixed length; each character is the max length of the CHARACTER SET (eg, 4 bytes/character for utf8mb4).
  • With CHAR, use CHARACTER SET ascii unless you know otherwise.
  • VARCHAR(n) will truncate at n characters; TEXT will truncate at some number of bytes. (But, do you want truncation?)
  • *TEXT may slow down complex SELECTs due to how temp tables are handled.

# INT as AUTO_INCREMENT

Any size of INT may be used for AUTO_INCREMENT. UNSIGNED is always appropriate.

Keep in mind that certain operations "burn" AUTO_INCREMENT ids. This could lead to an unexpected gap. Examples: INSERT IGNORE and REPLACE. They may preallocate an id before realizing that it won't be needed. This is expected behavior and by design in the InnoDB engine and should not discourage their use.

# Others

There is already a separate entry for "FLOAT, DOUBLE, and DECIMAL" and "ENUM". A single page on datatypes is likely to be unwieldy -- I suggest "Field types" (or should it be called "Datatypes"?) be an overview, then split into these topic pages:

  • INTs
  • FLOAT, DOUBLE, and DECIMAL
  • Strings (CHARs, TEXT, etc)
  • BINARY and BLOB
  • DATETIME, TIMESTAMP, and friends
  • ENUM and SET
  • Spatial data
  • JSON type (MySQL 5.7.8+)
  • How to represent Money, and other common 'types' that need shoehorning into existing datatypes

Where appropriate, each topic page should include, in addition to syntax and examples:

  • Considerations when ALTERing
  • Size (bytes)
  • Contrast with non-MySQL engines (low priority)
  • Considerations when using the datatype in a PRIMARY KEY or secondary key
  • other Best Practice
  • other Performance issues

(I assume this "example" will self-distruct when my suggestions have been satisfied or vetoed.)

# Introduction (numeric)

MySQL offers a number of different numeric types. These can be broken down into

Group Types
Integer Types INTEGER, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, MEDIUMINT, BIGINT
Fixed Point Types DECIMAL, NUMERIC
Floating Point Types FLOAT, DOUBLE
Bit Value Type BIT

# Integer Types

Minimal unsigned value is always 0.

Type Storage
(Bytes)
Minimum Value
(Signed)
Maximum Value
(Signed)
Maximum Value
(Unsigned)
TINYINT 1 -27
-128
27-1
127
28-1
255
SMALLINT 2 -215
-32,768
215-1
32,767
216-1
65,535
MEDIUMINT 3 -223
-8,388,608
223-1
8,388,607
224-1
16,777,215
INT 4 -231
-2,147,483,648
231-1
2,147,483,647
232-1
4,294,967,295
BIGINT 8 -263
-9,223,372,036,854,775,808
263-1
9,223,372,036,854,775,807
264-1
18,446,744,073,709,551,615

# Fixed Point Types

MySQL's DECIMAL and NUMERIC types store exact numeric data values. It is recommended to use these types to preserve exact precision, such as for money.

# Decimal

These values are stored in binary format. In a column declaration, the precision and scale should be specified

Precision represents the number of significant digits that are stored for values.

Scale represents the number of digits stored after the decimal

salary DECIMAL(5,2)

5 represents the precision and 2 represents the scale. For this example, the range of values that can be stored in this column is -999.99 to 999.99

If the scale parameter is omitted, it defaults to 0

This data type can store up to 65 digits.

The number of bytes taken by DECIMAL(M,N) is approximately M/2.

# Floating Point Types

FLOAT and DOUBLE represent approximate data types.

Type Storage Precision Range
FLOAT 4 bytes 23 significant bits / ~7 decimal digits 10^+/-38
DOUBLE 8 bytes 53 significant bits / ~16 decimal digits 10^+/-308

REAL is a synonym for FLOAT. DOUBLE PRECISION is a synonym for DOUBLE.

Although MySQL also permits (M,D) qualifier, do not use it. (M,D) means that values can be stored with up to M total digits, where D can be after the decimal. Numbers will be rounded twice or truncated; this will cause more trouble than benefit.

Because floating-point values are approximate and not stored as exact values, attempts to treat them as exact in comparisons may lead to problems. Note in particular that a FLOAT value rarely equals a DOUBLE value.

# Bit Value Type

The BIT type is useful for storing bit-field values. BIT(M) allows storage of up to M-bit values where M is in the range of 1 to 64

You can also specify values with bit value notation.

b'111'      -> 7
b'10000000' -> 128

Sometimes it is handy to use 'shift' to construct a single-bit value, for example (1 << 7) for 128.

The maximum combined size of all BIT columns in an NDB table is 4096.

# CHAR(n)

CHAR(n) is a string of a fixed length of n characters. If it is CHARACTER SET utf8mb4, that means it occupies exactly 4*n bytes, regardless of what text is in it.

Most use cases for CHAR(n) involve strings that contain English characters, hence should be CHARACTER SET ascii. (latin1 will do just as good.)

country_code CHAR(2) CHARACTER SET ascii,
postal_code  CHAR(6) CHARACTER SET ascii,
uuid    CHAR(39) CHARACTER SET ascii,  -- more discussion elsewhere

# DATE, DATETIME, TIMESTAMP, YEAR, and TIME

The DATE datatype comprises the date but no time component. Its format is 'YYYY-MM-DD' with a range of '1000-01-01' to '9999-12-31'.

The DATETIME type includes the time with a format of 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS'. It has a range from '1000-01-01 00:00:00' to '9999-12-31 23:59:59'.

The TIMESTAMP type is an integer type comprising date and time with an effective range from '1970-01-01 00:00:01' UTC to '2038-01-19 03:14:07' UTC.

The YEAR type represents a year and holds a range from 1901 to 2155.

The TIME type represents a time with a format of 'HH:MM:SS' and holds a range from '-838:59:59' to '838:59:59'.

Storage Requirements:

|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|--------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|-----------------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|-------------------------------------|
| Data Type | Before MySQL 5.6.4 | as of MySQL 5.6.4                      |
|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|--------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|-----------------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|-------------------------------------|
| YEAR      |      1 byte        |  1 byte                                |
| DATE      |      3 bytes       |  3 bytes                               |
| TIME      |      3 bytes       |  3 bytes + fractional seconds storage  |
| DATETIME  |      8 bytes       |  5 bytes + fractional seconds storage  |
| TIMESTAMP |      4 bytes       |  4 bytes + fractional seconds storage  |
|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|--------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|-----------------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|-------------------------------------|

Fractional Seconds (as of Version 5.6.4):

|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---------------------------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---------------|
| Fractional Seconds Precision | Storage Required |
|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---------------------------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---------------|
|              0               |      0 bytes     |
|              1,2             |      1 byte      |
|              3,4             |      2 byte      |
|              5,6             |      3 byte      |
|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---------------------------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---------------|

See the MySQL Manual Pages DATE, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP Types, Data Type Storage Requirements, and Fractional Seconds in Time Values.